Kado hakko-maisu(The number of credit cards issued)

With financial institutions and distribution companies competitively making efforts to increase users, credit cards have rapidly spread. However, particularly due to ignorance, some of the young generation of users, have made multiple obligations and end up in bankruptcy.




Chochiku(Savings)

The rate of household financial chochiku, which has tended to decrease in recent years, held steady at about 20 percent from the 1960s through the 1970s and is still at a high standard when compared to advanced European and North American countries. This high chochiku rate supported investment capital and even became a causal factor of the high economic growth.

The reason for the Japanese people's high rate of chochiku is because there is strong concern about social security in times of illness, accident or old age and because there are educational expenses for children and extremely high construction and purchase expenditures for one's home. In addition, since the chochiku rate in Korea and Taiwan is also quite high, the influence of Confucian values that respect simple frugality must not be so little on the chochiku rate in Japan.




Zaiteku(Financial management)

Zaiteku is an abbreviation of zaimu tekunorojii, which means "Raising profit by utilizing capital for securities investments, real estate and the like" and has been widely used since 1986. Japanese companies conservative about capital investment because of the recession by yen appreciation have eagerly invested surplus capital in securities or in real estate and tried to raise profits with money from dividends or sales.

This zaiteku boom has spread not only to companies but to individuals who have vigorously invested in high-yield securities or in apartment houses or land in Tokyo. This excessive zaiteku boom can be said to be one cause of the steep increase in land prices. However, the zaiteku boom has apparently come to an end with the collapse of the "Bubble Economy."




Zainichi-gaikokujin(Foreigners in Japan)

The percentage of foreign residents to the total population was 1.05% as of 1993, which has grown 1.4 times in five years. Nearly 80% of them is people from Asia, especially from South and North Korea, but its ratio was lowered, and people from South America have increased to 14.9%. It is the result of that the second or later generation of Japanese immigrants to Brazil and Peru returned to Japan with their families and settled down. Different from countries built by immigrants, such as the United States or Australia, Japan has a strict entry administration, and has set up strict conditions for entries on working purpose.



Gaikokujin-rodosha(Foreign Workers)

Yen has become an internationally strong currency, and there are increasingly more people who think that working in Japan will make it possible to earn a large sum of money. However, because of strict inspections for entry, illegal workers, who entered the country on tourist or other visa for work and stayed after the visa had expired, have rapidly increased during the period of As "Bubble Economy." "Bubble Economy" collapsed and the number of the unemployed grew, illegal workers are gradually decreasing.




Shosha(Commercial firms)

Japanese shosha do business in all sorts of places around the world with all sorts of goods and enterprises, in all sorts of forms. Because of their diversity within those enterprises, they are called general trading companies(sogo shosha). The size of general trading companies is such that only nine large companies control 50% of Japan's exports and 40% of the imports.

Shosha cooperate in the development of resources in foreign countries, they then import those resources to supplement deficiencies in industrial resources and nurture domestic industries with financing for smaller companies and by cultivating foreign markets. In addition, they also cooperate with government policies and contribute to the development of the nation's economy, a characteristic not evident in other countries' companies; for example, they promote imports and joint ventures with foreign countries when the trade imbalance becomes a problem.



Tenkin(Change of job location)

Business in Japan has the lifetime employment system and employees have a strong sense of belonging to the company. The fact that employees prioritize the company over the family tended to be regarded as natural. Accordingly, if one is ordered to do tenkin, it is difficult to refuse. However, tenkin puts children at a disadvantage with exams approaching, and, if one owns a house, it must be managed in one's absence. In such cases, the father leaves his wife and children behind and sets out to his place of work alone. Because there are a lot of problems, both economic and emotional, in living apart from the family, taking up one's post apart from one's family has become a social issue; but recently businesses are making employees' wishes a priority and have begun to deal with the issue.




Rodo-jikan(Working hours)

After the Second World War, the Japanese people reconstructed their economy, which had suffered a deadly blow, and desperately worked to enrich their lives. Japan thus passed through the period of high economic growth centered in the 1960s and grew into a major economic power. Yet, with respect to the excess in exports and the same long working hours, Japan had been criticized by other advanced countries as being workaholic. Thus, by spreading five-day week and improving the frequency of paid vacations, the government began to hammer out a policy of reducing the actual annual worktime. The recession following the collapse of the "Bubble Economy" unintentionally and effectively promoted the reduction in working hours. Although bewildered by the free time that suddenly came into their hands, business warriors in Japan are groping for a new way of living by, for example, taking cultural courses and participating in volunteer activities.




Rodo-joken hikaku(Comparison of working conditions)

It is observed that the long working hours in Japan is due to a few numbers of holidays resulting from the delayed spread of five-day week, rather than to the length of working hours per day. It is also conspicuous that women in Japan are under bad working condition, even in international point of view.




Danjo koyo kikai kintoho(Equal Employment Opportunity Law)

The formal title of this law is: "Law concerning improvement in the welfare of female labor, through securing equality of employment opportunity and treatment for male and female." It was enacted in April 1986 with the goal of abolishing employment discrimination between male and female. This meant there would no longer be discrimination between male and female in employee recruitment, promotion, pay or mandatory retirement age.

But in actuality discrimination between male and female in the workplace was not completely abolished. In order to declare equality between male and female, it became possible, for example, to make female workers work late at night. The friction surrounding men and women at work continued unchallenged, and voices are being raised demanding improvement in the law.